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//Clinical Studies
Clinical Studies 2018-01-02T12:41:28+00:00

The following comprises just a few of the clinical studies connecting Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and related conditions to neuro-inflammation and immune dysfunctional states:

  • Findings suggest immune activation is associated with many cases of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (Landay et al. 1991). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0140673691914406

  • In the June 1999 issue of the Journal of Child Neurology, researchers led by Dr. Anne M. Comi of the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland concluded that ASD appears to be more common in families with a history of autoimmune disorders. The study included 61 autistic patients and 46 healthy patients. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/088307389901400608

  • ASD individuals show immune transcriptome alterations in the temporal cortex that seem to indicate immune dysregulation with consequent inflammation (Garbett et al., 2008). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378158

  • Supporting the role of chronic infection/inflammation in ASD pathogenesis, multiple polyomaviral infections were observed to be significantly more common in the post-mortem brains of ASD individuals (Lintas et al., 2010). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20345322

  • Madhusudan & A. Cavanna (2013). This systematic review evaluates the literature investigating the role of immunological abnormalities in both tic expression and susceptibility to infection in patients with Tourette Syndrome.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221053361300097X

  • Piras et al. (2014) correlated anti-brain antibodies with specific deficits in ASD, thus reinforcing the notion that chronic inflammation is a common denominator that may lead to EAF increase because of impaired meningeal lymphatic drainage https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4111628/

  • Many studies now support that the autistic brain is not simply wired differently but that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffer from an ongoing neuro-inflammatory process in different regions of the brain involving microglial activation. Pardoet al.2005; Enstrom et al.2005; Vargas et al.2005; Zimmerman et al.2005.

  • Kern et al. (2016) concludes that a conservative estimate based on the research suggests that at least 69% of individuals with an ASD diagnosis have microglial activation or neuro-inflammation. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4717322/

  • Slattery et al. (2016) show that changes in the enteric ecosystem (the microbiome) are believed to alter metabolic and immune system function and epigenetic regulation. The authors discuss how these alterations may converge to trigger or exacerbate the formation of an ASD phenotype. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/contentone/ben/cpd/2016/00000022/00000040/art00005?crawler=true

  • Louveau et al. (2015). A stunning discovery of a previously undetected system of meningeal lymphatic vessels provides the missing link between the brain and the immune system and upends current medical science. This finding overturns decades of textbook teaching, revolutionizes our current understanding of the etiology of neuro-inflammatory and neuro-degenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction and provides irrefutable proof that pathogens have a direct route to the brain.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4506234/
  • Edmiston E, et al. Summarize the emerging studies which increasingly suggest that immune dysfunction is a viable risk factor contributing to the neurodevelopmental deficits observed in ASD. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28340985/

  • Derrick MacFabe, MD. A general review of background/approach on how gut metabolites “drive” host behaviour and brain immune function/metabolism. http://www.psychology.uwo.ca/pdfs/autism/GAHMJ-Nov2013-MacFabe.pdf